- Apraxia is the difficulty in performing skilled and purposeful movement.
- Two types of apraxia include: ideational apraxia and ideomotor apraxia.
- Ideational apraxia results in individuals not having an idea or concept of what to do or where to start in regards to movement.
- Ideomotor apraxia results in the inability to complete a task or movement upon verbal command
Strategies for Apraxia
- Simplifying tasks down to two steps can assist those with ideational apraxia.
- Backward chaining is a method that can be used where the carepartner helps the survivor complete a majority of the task, but leaves the final step of the task for them to complete independently.
- Adaptive equipment can be used to help individuals with ideomotor apraxia. Some examples are:
- A walking stick or cane
- Weighted/modified utensils
- Communication aids.
- Therapies can include:
- Physical — Help coordinate movements
- Occupational — Help with daily activities and adaptations
- Speech — Improve communication and swallowing
- Ataxia is impaired balance and or coordination.
- Due to loss of muscle control in legs and arms, but can also impact speech/mouth and eye movements.
- Vestibular Ataxia: learning, falling, head tilt towards side of lesion.
- Cerebellar Ataxia: Inability to control the rate and range of stepping movements.
Strategies for Ataxia
- Adaptive devices such as:
- Canes/walking sticks
- Modified utensils
- Communication aids
- Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can assist with daily living skills, mobility and communication.